2017 Horoscope Prediction
Astronomy is the oldest natural science, comes from the ancient world, with its origins in the religious, mythological and astrological of history: remnants still exist in astrology, a discipline long closely connected with the public and governmental astronomy, and only a few hundred left in the Western World (see astrology and astronomy). In some cultures astronomical information for astrological predictions was used.
Ancient astronomers were able to distinguish between stars and planets, the stars remain relatively stable over the centuries while planets to move a substantial amount for a relatively short time. Early cultures identified celestial objects with gods and spirits. They referred to these objects (and their movements) to phenomena such as rain, drought, seasons and tides. It is generally accepted that the first professional astronomer priests (like the Magi) were, and their understanding of heaven was a divine , hence the ancient astronomy from astrology, so now known. old structures, with the possibility of astronomical alignments (such as Stonehenge) probably fulfilled both astronomical and religious functions.
Calendar of the world have adopted as a rule, by sun and moon (measuring the day, month and year) was, and were of importance to agricultural societies, where the harvest depends on the planting time of year. The most common modern calendar on the Roman calendar, the year is based divided into twelve months of thirty days each and AC 31st is plotted in the year 46 BC, the calendar reform of Julius Caesar and adopted a calendar on the length of the year 365 1 / 4 days originally from the fourth century BC Greek astronomer Calipo proposed.
The origins of Western astronomy can be found in Mesopotamia, land between the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, where the ancient kingdoms of Sumer, Assyria and Babylon. A kind of writing known as cuneiform emerged among the Sumerians around 3500-3000 BC. Our knowledge of Sumerian astronomy is indirect, by early star catalogs Babylon around 1200 BC.
The fact that many stars appear in the Sumerian name suggests a continuity to achieve the Bronze Age. Astral theology, which gave planetary gods an important role in Mesopotamian mythology and religion, began with the Sumerians. They also used a sexagesimal (base 60) of the numerical method that simplifies the task of recording a large and small. The modern practice of dividing a circle into 360 degrees, 60 minutes, began with the Sumerians. For more information see the article on Babylon numbers and arithmetic.
Conventional sources often term Chaldeans for the astronomers of Mesopotamia, in fact, priests and scribes, specializing in astrology and other forms of divination were used.
A significant increase in the quality and frequency of observations of Babylon appeared during the reign of Nabonassar (747-733 BC). The systematic collection of astronomical phenomena, ominous in the newspapers that this period began for the discovery of an iteration cycle of 18 years of lunar eclipses, for example. Define the most commonly used Greek astronomer Ptolemy Nabonassar reign of the beginning of a period, he estimated that the first observations began to be used at this time. The first periodic data from the realization that astronomical phenomena and the application of Babylonian arithmetic on their prediction. The tablets of the period Babylon main document of the application of arithmetic to the change in day length during a solar year. Centuries of Babylonian observations of celestial phenomena in the series of cuneiform tablets as Enuma Anu Enlil recorded known. The oldest significant astronomical text, they have the Enuma Anu Enlil tablet is a tablet 63 of Ammi-Sadooq Venus, the elimination of visible first and last of Venus over a period of almost 21 years and is the first fact leads to the phenomenon of a planets have been detected as periodically. ULD.
The final steps in the development of Babylonian astronomy took place during the time of the Seleucid Empire (323-60 BC). In the third century BC, astronomers began to use texts goal of the year to predict the movements of the planets. These texts are compiled data from previous iteration observations on occurrence of disturbing phenomena for each planet. Almost at the same time or shortly thereafter, the astronomers created mathematical models that predict them directly to these phenomena allowed without consulting past records. A Babylonian astronomer notable this time was Seleucus of Seleucia, who was a supporter of the heliocentric model.